Physiological Changes With Aging

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Physiological Changes With Aging

Human aging is the accumulative effect of changes in a human body over time (physical, psychological, and social changes.) Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases: two thirds of people die from age-related causes.

One of the first signs people feel regarding physiological changes with aging is that they begin to notice that their vision is declining around age of 40 to 45 years  Most people require reading glasses by age 45–50. Around age 50, many people have their hair turn grey. 50% of males and a quarter of females suffer from pattern hair loss.  In females, mMenopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Between 60 to 64 years of age the incidence of osteoarthritis rises to 53%; however, only 20% of people report having disabling osteoarthritis at this age. Almost half of people older than 75 have hearing loss inhibiting spoken communication. By age 80, 50% plus have cataracts or have had cataract surgery. Frailty, defined as loss of muscle mass and mobility, affects 25% of those over 85. Atherosclerosis, an ageing disease leads to cardiovascular disease (stroke and heart attack) which is the most common cause of death globally.

Dementia becomes more common with age. Between the ages of 65 and 74 about 3% of people have dementia and between 75 and 84 about 19% have dementia, and nearly half of those over 85 years of age have dementia. The spectrum ranges from mild cognitive impairment to the neurodegenerative diseases of Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease. Many types of memory may decline with ageing, but not semantic memory or general knowledge such as vocabulary definitions, which typically increases or remains steady until late adulthood. Intelligence may decline with age, though the rate may vary depending on the type. Intelligence may in remain steady throughout most of the lifespan, dropping suddenly only after people near the end of their lives. There might be changes to the brain: after 20 years of age there may be a 10% reduction each decade in the total length of the brain's myelinated axons.

Age can result in visual impairment which can lead to isolation and possible depression. Macular degeneration causes vision loss and increases with age, affecting nearly 12% of those above the age of 80. This degeneration is caused by systemic changes in the circulation of waste products and by growth of abnormal vessels around the retina.

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Physiological Changes With Aging

In conclusion, aging is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases. Of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds, 100,000 per day, die from age-related causes. In industrialised nations, the proportion is higher, reaching 90%  The suggested maximum human lifespan is 115 years "for the foreseeable future". The oldest reliably recorded human was Jeanne Calment who attained 122 years and died in 1997.